MIOMD-XI Speakers    
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1.  Mr. Ehsan Kamrani, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, CANADA
Late-Breaking Results: Near Infra-Red Light Detection Using Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes: Design Challenges in Standard CMOS Technology
Speaker Biography: Ehsan Kamrani: Ehsan received his B.Sc. degree in Biomedical engineering from SBMU, Iran, in 2002 and his Masters degree in Electrical and Control Engineering from TMU, Iran, in 2005. He has been with the Institute of Medical Engineering, Salamat-Pajooh-Bartar (05-09), MetaCo. (03-04), Ferdowsray (00,04), Saadat Co. (98-04) and Imen-Ijaz Inc. (99-00) working on design and development of biomedical imaging and real-time monitoring systems. From 2005 to 2009 he has been an Academic Member-Instructor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lorestan, Iran. His expertises are on Analog integrated circuits, smart CMOS image sensors, wireless networked sensors, web-based control systems and biomedical signal/image processing. He published more than 30 papers in peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings. Since 2009 he has been doing his PhD on Biomedical Engineering at Polystim neurotechnologies Laboratory, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada. He is working on design and implementation of an fNIRS photo receiver for real-time brain monitoring. From March 2012 he has joined Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, MA, USA working in an active bio-optics project for developing novel innovative technologies by integration of photonics and biological system aiming at developing a novel diagnostic optical instrument for medical applications.

Summary: Silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (SiAPDs) fabricated using highly optimized dedicated processes to achieve excellent device performance can have low doped p and n layer resulting in wide depletion region extending from the cathode to the anode. Due to the availability of wide depletion region, they are efficient for absorption of red and NIR photons. Nevertheless, the SiAPDs fabricated in dedicated process have two major disadvantages: the production cost is very high due to the specialized fabrication process, and it is unfeasible to integrate electronic circuits on the same chip. Later several dedicated SiAPD fabrication technologies were proposed which are compatible with the fabrication of CMOS circuits, and therefore, monolithic integration of APD devices and CMOS circuits became possible. However, optimizing the performance of both the CMOS devices and the SiAPD is a non-trivial job. To overcome these problems, researchers have investigated the design and fabrication of SiAPDs in a standard CMOS process to reduce cost and to maximize miniaturization. The fabrication of SiAPDs in standard CMOS technology permits having both the photodetector and the necessary peripheral circuits on the same chip as an integrated system. However, it is challenging to make SiAPDs in standard CMOS technology due to lack of special fabrication steps. Furthermore, the realization of the APD has to be compatible with the CMOS process characteristics and the APD has to operate with a sufficient voltage, allowing for avalanche mode without destroying the device, particularly at the peripheral junction at the presence of Punch-through, high tunneling, and premature edge breakdown (PEB) effects.
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